Each month in abenaki history...

Typical Wabanaki Encampment Of The Late 1700's
Water color done by: Hibbert Newton Binney, 1791

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Some important years in Abenaki History

The Sokoki Abenaki presented claims to Vermont for parts of the homeland, but their request was rejected.

Nails from the Bushy site, a Native American burial ground on Monument Road Highgate, VT (human remains identified as native by Deborah Blom, UVM). There were at least three types of nails remaining in the severely damaged coffins: a late 1700’s type with a wrought head and a machine cut shaft, a later, early 19th century style that had a single pass cut body and head, and a distinctive 1830’s + style that had a two pass cut by the nail cutting machine. There were no wire nails of the late 19th century in evidence. The presence of a multi decade native cemetery distinctly separated from the contemporaneous burial ground in Swanton (on Church St., across from the Town Offices) shows an organized use of a plot of land, thereby indicating a “larger than family” corporate native existence. While Anglo families may have family plots, there is abundant evidence that Eastern Native Americans buried their dead in communal plots. The fact that nails date to different periods indicates a multi-decade communal memory of the unmarked burial spaces.

“A deputation of the St. Francis Indians, at Montpelier, claiming compensation for all that territory in Vermont west of Otter Creek, and between Lake Champlain and where the waters begin to flow into the Connecticut…” The Caledonian. Nov. 26, 1853.

The Sokoki Abenaki presented claims to Vermont for parts of the homeland, but their request was rejected.

b. 1860
Traces of a still more ancient Indian settlement were found previous to the Civil War two miles north of the village of Swanton, and not far from the Highgate line. On a sandy ridge, covered when the white men came with a tall growth of pines, an Indian burial place was found. How many forests grew to maturity and decayed after these graves were made cannot be known. Neither the Indians who lingered here after settlements were begun, nor members of the St. Francis tribe from Canada who have made visits here in recent years, related any traditions of an earlier race which occupied this region.

At least twenty-five graves were opened, some of them being not less than six feet below the surface, while others were not more than two feet deep, but the drifting sand of this locality makes it unsafe to assume that any of the graves originally were shallow. Several skeletons were found, and the indications were that the bodies were buried in a sitting posture with their faces to the east. These skeletons crumbled noticeably upon being exposed to the air.

Other evidences of Indian occupation are to be found in Swanton. L. B. Truax, who has made a careful study of the Indian occupation here, has said: "The result of an active investigation and study of this region, extending over a period of ten years, leads the writer to the belief that the number of people inhabiting this region in the past has been very much underestimated by writers and students."

The Sokoki Abenaki presented claims to Vermont for parts of the homeland, but their request was rejected.

“Of the origins of this Burial ground… the St. Francis (Abenaki) Indians…knew nothing… as I was… told by one of the few surviving members of the tribe.” Abbe Hemmingway, Vermont Historical Gazetteer. 1883. Vol. IV: 945

Original Document Chief of the Wabanacus, Highgate VT. Real Photo Postcard. Purchased on the Internet from a California collector. The inscription was scratched into the negative with a stylus before printing the postcard, so it cannot be a later addition. Original inscription Monument Road Monument: Mission to the St. Francis Indian—this is the important document that makes the point that Vermont Abenakis were called “ St. Francis.” Needed to cast doubt on the Odanak hypothesis.

Alice Roy , Barre, VT, interview where she tells of her father visiting the Indians in northern Vermont, with descriptions of clothing and housing.

Original inscription Watch, engraved, 1918, with fancy beaded watch-fob. Purchased from a New Jersey estate sale. Was supposed to be from Chester A. Arthur’s family this cannot be confirmed, even though there is Stevens ancestral connection in Arthur’s mothers’ genealogy.

Alice Roy and Prof. James Petersen share personal and family stories of Vermont’s Gypsies in the 1930’s. Mrs. Roy indicated that the Franco-Vermont community knew that the Gypsies were Indians, and Petersen’s Addison County (next to Orange County Vt) family heirloom basket is distinctively Abenaki in style. Collectively, this is archival testimony of the existence of an existing Abenaki migratory community persisting into the 1930’s.

Summer 1934
Tolba (Turtle) Clan Private meeting held at home of Clan Matriarch at Waterman Hill, Norwich, Vermont.(approx. 20 miles from Fairlee Vt).

Spring 1947
Elwin ( Joe) Pero of Thetford, Vermont was chosen Sachem (Chief) Nolka (Deer) Clan of the Cowasuck Band by his uncle. He served until his death in 1983.

Original Object with oral history Canoe cup, Edward Hakey, made in 1959. This was made by Ed Hakey who told me that it would “turn into a loon” when turned upside down. Penobscot canoe cups are well-known and very valuable ethnic identifiers; only known 20th century VT Abenaki example. Original Object with Oral History Bark canoe and card. This canoe and its 1970’s era photocopy/information card are collectively the only known example of a Vermont bark canoe made in the distinctive Abenaki design more well known from Odanak. However, the Paquettes are a Highgate, VT family. The only known mid 20th century bark-work “tourist item” made by VT Abenakis.

“In an essay entitled, “My Early Vermont”, James Davis of Fairlee, Vermont wrote in 1954, “My family’s 170 acre farm bordering on the lake Morey yield many arrow and spear heads of flint and other stones to older brother John. I was with my older sister Mae when she picked from the shore of the lake one of the handsomest, symmetrically shaped, semitransparent white arrowheads I have ever seen, even in the choicest of museum collections. Working on the farm I frequently found specimens, including a tomahawk. Source: Over The River and Through the Years, Book Two, by Katharine Blaisdell, 1980, page 7.

Original Object with Oral History Cradleboard. Stylistically dated to the 1950’s and 1960’s by nylon ribbon detail. This object was traded to me by Ben Gravel, in the mid 1960’s and used by his sister to put babies in after they were born. It was too “modern,” for his collection of Indian artifacts, and I traded him an Attikamek cradleboard for it. This cradleboard, is in very good condition and shows creative and idiosyncratic use of 1960’s parts, and materials, such as macramé beads, loomed nylon tape, and commercial leather. Seems to have been artificially “antiqued” to make it seem more authentic.

The 1970 U.S. Census says there are 500 Indians in Vermont and New Hampshire.

Because of the raise in political activism in Canada and the U.S., the Abenaki St. Francis/Sokoki Band is created to bring all Abenaki together under Chief Homer St. Francis.

Source: Over The River and Through the Years, Book Two, by Katharine Blaisdell, 1980

Arthur Palmer of North Thetford, Vermont, has Indian artifacts collected by his father at various sites in Lyme and along the bank of the Connecticut River in North Thetford, before Wilder Dam was built and flooded the area. These relics have been identified for us by Howard Sargent, New Hampshire’s foremost expert in Indian artifacts.

Source: Over The River and Through the Years, Book Two, by Katharine Blaisdell, 1980

The 1980 US Census reports 989 Indians in Vermont and 1352 in New Hampshire.

Spring 1980
Sachem Richard (Black Horse) Phillips of the Eastern Woodlands Band/Clan of Abenaki and Sachem Joe Pero of the Nolka Clan of the Cowasuck agree to form the Northeast Woodlands Band of the Cowasuck Abenaki Nation of Vermont.

Fall 1980
Tolba (Turtle) Clan of the Cowasuck Abenaki of Vermont headed by Howard F. Knight Jr. unites his Clan into the Northeast Woodlands Band.

Fall 1981
Sachem Joe Pero chosen as Band Sachem and holds it until his death in 1983.

Spring 1981
Sachem Phillips quits as Band Sachem and Awassos (Bear) Clan Sachem, takes over temporarily as the Band reorganizes after he takes the ancient Cowasuck oath of being a servant of all the Cowasuck people that he will represent from that day forward. This oath for all Sachems is binding for life.

Reginald Pero, brother of Chief Elwin succeeded him as Nolka Clan Sachem until his death in 1990’s.

Tolba Clan Sachem, Howard F. Knight Jr. is elected as acting Band Sachem of the Northeast Woodlands Band of the Abenaki Nation in 1983, later elected Sachem, taking the ancient oath.

Vermont Supreme Court overturns the Wolchek decision. At Missisquoi, the Abenaki Indian Education Center expands. The Abenaki Health Center is founded. Abenaki Nation/Missisquoi renews its federal recognition application.

The New Hampshire Inter-tribal Council is reactivated. Coosuc groups also emerge in Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Abenaki Nation/New Hampshire emerges.

Winter 1992 & Spring 1993
Howard Knight resigns because of illness. Paul Pouliot and associates take over operation from Massachusetts, outside ancient area using the Cowasuck name. After legal issues, they became the Cowass-Pennacook and moved to New Hampshire. Some refused to join and reorganized as the Coawasuck Band of Vermont and re-installed Sachem Howard Knight as Council Head. They became the Grand Council of the Cowasuck of North America based in ancient territory, the correct location. Later another group formed in Massachusetts called Southern New England Council of the Cowasuck North America, and later changed to the Squakheag Band still allied with Cowasuck. After several hostle takeovers this group spun off into several groups.

6,000 Native American’s were listed in the U.S. Census out of 600,000 residence with the largest percentage living in Franklin County in northeast Vermont.

Fall 1998 to Spring 2000
Coos (Cowasuck) Council ran food bank for members serving 35-38 families each month. They were also active in US Government Surplus Commodities and served 17-18 families.

1993 to 2000
Several groups spin off Coos Band to form independent groups, Thunderbird Band, The Women’s Hoop, Clan of the Hawk.

Spring & Summer 2000
Sachem Howard Knight has near fatal heart attack and surrenders part of band to hostile Canadian group but keeps core of group.

Summer-Fall 2005
Cowasuck Band expands as Cowasuck-Horicon Traditional Council of the Sovereign Abenaki Nation. After medical approval, Sachem Howard F. Knight Jr. Tolba (Turtle) Clan reorganized band with understanding that new leadership was needed.

Spring 2006
One of council’s sub-Chief’s and council secretary leave the Cowasuck Band to form Cowasuck Horicon Council.

August 2006 - October 2006
One of our Chiefs meets with New Hampshire Archaeologist, Richard Boisvert, to discuss the Colebrook, NH archaeological dig.

Spring 2012
State of Vermont recognizes the next two applicant tribes in line before us, the Koasek for recognition; The St. Francis Missisquoi, and the Koas tribes. 

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January, 1723(Exact date Unknown)
A party of 300 men under Colonel Thomas Westbrook reached the mission village of Norridgewock, burned the church, and pillaged Rasle's cabin. There they found an iron box which contained, besides his correspondence with the authorities of Quebec, a valuable dictionary of the Abenaki language in three volumes.

January 1753
The Assembly of New Hampshire began the process of cutting and making a road from the settlements upon the Merrimack to the "Coos Meadows". Abenaki sent six Indians with a flag of truce into the Fort at Number Four. The Abenaki held their ground on the subject. They told Capt. Stevens that they were displeased "at our peoples going to take a view of the Coos Meadows last spring" (spring of 1752,) and that "for the English to settle Cowos was what they could not agree to; and as the English had no need of that land, but had enough without it, they must think the English had a mind for war if they should go there," and that they should "have a strong war."

January, 1977 (Exact Date Unknown)
Vermont Governor Richard Snelling revokes state recognition from the Abenaki of Vermont.

January 1, 1698
The Abenaki Indians and Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty to stop hostilities.

January 7, 1699
The King William's war is concluded with a signing of a Peace Treaty between the Abenaki and the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay at Casco Bay, Maine.

January 7, 1725
John Lovewell and 87 begin a second expedition to the White Mountains which ends with their February 20th attack of an Abenaki encampment.

January 23, 1689
An Abenaki war party made up of 50-60 Ossipee, Sebago, Pequaket and Saco attack Saco, Maine. One in a series of attacks on the settlement to drive the settlers out. Nine settlers would be killed in the fighting.

January 25, 1692
Just before dawn, the village of York, Maine, is attacked by 150 Abenaki warriors, led by Chief Madockawando. Fourty-eight settlers are killed and Seventy-three are taken into captivity. The village and surrounding farms were burned for miles.

January 28, 1704
A party of 30 French and 40 Abenaki attack Berwick, ME. One person is killed and one wounded.

January 30, 1730
Several Androscoggin have a conference at Fort Richmond ME to inquire as to Colonel Dunbar's proceedings at Pemaquid.

January 30, 2007
A letter is received from Burton Decarr, Spiritual leader of the Abenaki Nation and former Tribal Council member of the St. Francis/Sokoki Band, which supports and recognizes Chief Brian Chenevert and associate Chief as the only Cowasuck Chiefs.

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February 1696 (Exact date unkown)
Captain Pasco Chubb at a conference at Fort William Henry, the most northern outpost of New England, situated at Pemaquid. A group of Abenaki and allies approach the gates of Fort William Henry. Among the group were chiefs Egeremet, Taxous and Escumbuit. The Abenaki were there to request an exchange of prisoners. The commandant of the English fort went out with his group apparently to parley but suddenly the English raised their guns and fired. After the smoke cleared Egeremet and two of his sons lay on the ground shot to death. Taxous and Escumbouit managed to escape.

February 2, 1692
A force of Abenakis and M'ikmaqs, organized and directed by Father Thury, attacked and destroyed the settlement of York, ME.

February 2, 1762
The earliest entry on church records at Saint Regis is the baptism of Margarita Theretia an Abenaki woman.

February 5, 2006
The first Abenaki Unity Meeting since 1995 is held it Randolph, VT. Those in attendance were:
Charles Delaney - Mazipskwik band
Peter Newell - NH Intertribal Native American Council
Howard F. Knight, Jr. - Cowasuck Traditional Council of the Abenaki
Kimberly Merriam - Secretary of Cowasuck Traditional Council
Roger Longtoe Sheehan - El Nu Abenaki Tribe
Nancy Cote & Dawn Macie - Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki
Yannick Mercier - Mena'sen Band Cowasuck Abenaki of Sherbrooke(Absent due to car problems on the way)
Melody Walker - Seven Fires Leader
Fred Wiseman - Historian of the St.Francis/Sokoki band
Jeff Benay - Chairman of VT Governors Commission of Native American Affairs
Burton Decar - Spiritual Leader - St.Francis/Sokoki band

Brian Chenevert - Cowasuck Traditional Council - Record Keeper
Nancy Lyons - Cowasuck Traditional Council - Meeting Organizer

February 7, 2009
With the approval of the Koasek Tribal Council, Chief Brian Chenevert appoints Nathan Pero (son of former Chief Joe Pero) and Shelley Boudreau to the tribal council to fill in vacancies by resigned council members until elections can be held in the fall.

February 8, 1704
Six Abenaki attack Haverhill, MA. 13 settlers are captured and 5 die in captivity.

February 9, 1754
Two Pennacook-Abenaki’s Plausawa and Sabattis went to Boscawen, New Hampshire to the home of Peter Bowen to trade. Bowen got them drunk on rum and removed the charges from their muskets. In the morning there was a disagreement and Bowen killed Sabattis and then Plausawa with a tomahawk. It is unknown if this was done in self-defense as Bowen claimed, or if Bowen did it in order to steal their furs. Peter Bowen was charged with the murder of both Plausawa and Sabattis and brought to Portsmouth, NH for trial which was to be March 21, 1754, but escaped from jail the night before the trial with the help of some friends and neighbors. Brown never stood trial.

February 16, 2008
The Koasek Traditional Band holds a Snow Snake competition in Randolph, VT. This event is the first of its kind to be held in N’dakinna in hundreds of years and is attended by Citizens from Koasek, Missisquoi and El Nu bands of Abenaki.

February 19, 1819
Sozap better known as "Indian Joe" died at about the age of 79. He was well known throughout Northeastern VT and Northwestern NH particularly in the town of Newbury, VT. The gun that was found loaded by his side was discharged over his grave. His gravestone reads: "Indian Joe, The Friendly Indian." He is often wrongly referred to in local histories as the last of his race. His birch bark canoe and gun are now housed on exhibit in Newbury. Visit: Kingdom Historical Link

February 20, 1725
John Lovewell and 87 men attacked an Abenaki camp near Tamworth, New Hampshire where they killed 10 Abenaki warriors who were planning raids to the south in the spring. The camp was then looted by Lovewell's militia of more that 20 wool blankets, large numbers of moccasins, snowshoes, furs and nearly brand new French muskets. While in Boston to collect the 1000 pound bounty for the scalps, Lovewell wore one of the scalps as a wig in a parade.

February 22, 1698
Pigwacket Abenaki Chief, Escumbuit led a raid on North Andover, broke into the Chubb residence and killed Pasco Chubb and his wife. A second raiding party also went to the nearby home of Col. Dudley Bradstreet, head of the local militia, but reportedly spared the life of Bradstreet and his wife when Wantanummon said the colonel had treated him kindly in the past. A visiting relative, however, was killed.

February 28, 2008
Temporary Sub-Chief Leo “Wise Owl” Descoteaux passes over the river.

February 29, 1704
A war party of 50 French and 200+ Abenaki, Huron and Mohawk of Lake of Two Mountains attacked Deerfield, Massachusetts which resulted in 56 dead, 109 captured and taken back to Canada, and half the houses burned.

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March 4, 1698
Pigwacket Abenaki Chief, Escumbuit leads a group of 30 Indians in a raid on Andover, MA., the last and most severe Indian raid on this town.

March 9, 1662
Passaconaway petitions the Mass General Court. The petition is approved on May 9, 1662. The grant gave Passaconaway land in Manchester, Londonderry, Merrimack and Bedford.

March 10, 2006
Brian Chenevert is voted in by council as Associated Sachem by 7 to 1 vote with training.

March 15, 1697
According to an early account by Cotton Mather, a group of about 20 Abenaki Indians attack Haverhill, MA. Hannah Dustin was pulled from her bed one week after giving birth to her eighth child and taken into captivity. Her husband managed to get the others to safety. The infant was killed when a member of the raiding party smashed it against a tree. Dustin and a small group of hostages were marched about 60 miles to Contoocook Island, NH (now known as Dustin Island), a two-acre island at the junction of the Merrimack and Contoocook Rivers, just north of Concord. On the night of March 29th-30th, 1697 enlisting the help of others, including her nurse and Samuel Leonardson, a fourteen-year-old English boy previously captured, the group killed 10 of their captors and escaped. Dustin sold the scalps to the local province for 50 pounds in reparation.

March 15, 1748
Abenaki warriors attack Fort #4 (Charlestown, NH). Eight men were near the stockade gathering wood when the attack began. One man was killed, one wounded, and one was captured.

March 16, 1621
Samoset, a Pemaquid sachem from Maine hunting in Massachusetts, walked into the Plymouth colony and greets them in perfect English with "Hello Englishmen."

March 18, 1690
A party of Abenaki raid the Shorts' home in Salmon Falls, NH. Five of the Short family are killed and four other settlers are taken captive. Mercy Short, one of the captives would later write that during the long winter march to Canada she saw a 5-year-old boy chopped to bits and a young girl scalped, and was forced to watch, as another fellow captive was ''Barbarously Sacrificed'': stripped, bound to a stake and tortured with fire, after which the Abenaki ''Danc'd about him, and at every Turn, they did with their knives cut collops of his Flesh, from his Naked Limbs, and throw them with his Blood into his Face.''

March 21-23, 2012 
Koasek Abenaki Tribe participated in the Gray Wolf Clan’s pow wow in Campton NH deepening our friendship.

March 27, 1663
A survey is completed of Naticook (Amherst, NH) to set aside land for Passaconaway. It consisted of both banks of the Merrimack River and below the inlet of the Souhegan and included the Islands at Reeds Ferry.

March 27, 1690
A party of 25 French led by Francois Joseph Hertel de Moncour and 3 of his sons and 25 Abenaki led by Hopegood raid Salmon Falls, NH at dawn, surrounding and attacking three garrison houses simultaneously, killing 34 English and capturing 54.

c. March 30, 2011 
El Nu and Nulhegan tribes were recognized by the State of Vermont.

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April 1711 (Exact date Unkown)
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Cochecho, NH. Four settlers are killed.

April 1712 (Exact date Unknown)
Captain Thomas Baker, along with Lieutenant Samuel Williams, and 32 militiamen from South Hampton attack an Abenaki camp of eleven Pennacook and Cowasuck men and their families at the confluence of the Pemigewasset river and Baker river. Baker and his men stole a large quantity of furs and killed nine Abenaki, including a man they identified as "Walternummus". This earned Baker and his men a "scalp bounty" of 40 pounds sterling from Massachusetts Colonial authorities. The deed earned Baker a promotion to captain and a namesake river. The Abenaki survivors fled to Pequawket.

April 1712 (Exact date Unknown)
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in York, ME. One settler is killed.

April 1712 (Exact date Unknown)
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Wells, ME. Three settlers are killed, three wounded and two taken captive.

April 1712 (Exact date Unknown)
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Kittery, ME. One settler is killed and one taken captive.

April 1712 (Exact date Unknown)A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Oyster River, NH. One settler is killed.

April 1712 (Exact date Unknown)
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Dover, NH. One settler is killed and one wounded.

c. April 2010
With many months of representing the Koasek Abenaki Tribe, the presence of Sub-Chief Paul Bunnell, Council/War Chief Bernie Mortz and citizen Ken Mortz, along with other Native American groups in New Hampshire achieved the recognition (not tribes) of a Native American Commission for New Hampshire, signed by Gov. Lynch. Our Koasek Abenaki Nation has two New Hampshire citizens applying for a commission seat.

April 1, 1747
A letter written by several Abenaki in control of Fort #2 at Westmoreland, NH was addressed and sent to the General Assembly.

"Gentlemen: Whereas there have been very grievous complaints in the province of New Hampshire with respect to ye support and maintenance of your frontiers in a time of war, we your allies while the peace lasted and so long as we received presents from you; but now as we allways are in time of war subjects to the King of France, have undertaken to free you from such an extraordinary charge by killing and taking captive the people and driving them off and firing their fortificaton. And so successful have we been in this affair that we have broke up almost all the new settlements in your western frontiers: so yt you need not be half the charge you were in past in maintaining a war in these parts. For now there are but little else besides the old towns, and if they will not fortifie and defend themselves, we think they ought to be left to our mercy. And for this good service that we have done the province, we humbly ask a suitable reward; but if your honours prefer we will wait till a peace is concluded and than receive it in presents. But in the mean time if some small matter of encouragement be given us we will go on to bring your frontiers to a narrower compass still and make your charges still smaller. But if your honours approve of this our design we humbly request of you to give us information whither it be more acceptable to you that we man your deserted garrisons our selves and eat up the provisions which your poor distrest neighbors leave in ym when they flee in their hurry and confusion or whether we burn up the forts with the provisions; for we assure you we find much more in them than we want for our own support whilst carrying on this busines. Gentlemen, however some may look upon us now yet we can assure you we are your very humble obsequious servants."

(signed by)
Old Town
Pene wanse
Chee Hoose
Prish Fore English
In the name and behalf of others.

April 3, 1835
The following article was published in the Green Mountain Democrat of Vermont: "party of Indians, fifteen, have been encamped at Windsor, during the whole winter, and the novelty of such a scene has excited speculation. They are part of the tribe of the Missisiques, who live a wandering life on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, and are on a journey to Hanover, N.H. for the purpose of entering a member of the family in Dartmouth College, but being overtaken by winter, they pitched their tents on the bank of the Connecticut some time in November, and have remained there ever since. The patriarch of the family is 73, and the candidate is 17, named Saysosaph Sabarese Alanum. They have erected two wigwams in which they lived through the severe cold of the winter and without any other means of support than is derived from the manufacture of Indian articles. They have lived, however, in the midst of a wealthy and hospitable people. Windsor, Windsor Co., Vermont, Source: Green Mountain Democrat 

Ne-Do-Ba Comment - - - Say-so-saph would likely be Jean Joseph, Sa-ba-rese might be Xavier, but we can not decipher the rest of the young man's name. It does not sound like any family name found at St. Francis, nor any of the Missisquoi family names we know about.

April 4, 2005
Letter from Gilles O'bomsawin "We know our people, our members, our descendants; so to me it still stands that someone who claims to be Abenaki from Odanak has to prove it. And also I, as chief, have to respect the demands of our registered members who are not even recognized in Vermont…..so by that we have to be strict and hard, we have to prove who we are and who they the members are.""So by this my solution (may be) and I say may be the thing to do is to try to unite with the Abenakis of Vermont by this I say not all the wannabees that spring out of every bush….They are the ones who really hurt you and I and the real members who have suffered….A nation in Vermont did exist and still does.By this I mean a nation of many clans, the Bear, the Wolf, and so many more that formed the Wabanaki Confederacy……."

April 4, 2006
Cowasuck-Horicon Council website goes live.

After April 2006
Horicon is dropped for historical cohesiveness.

April 5, 2007 
A letter is received from the National Congress of the American Indian asking Chief Brian Chenevert or a representative to attend a conference on State-Tribal relations which will be held in Boston, MA the week of June 26, 2007.

April 6, 1711
Twenty six Abenakis from the Peqwauket, Ossipee and Saco attack York, Maine setting fire to several houses and other buildings, as well as, crops...killed one, wounded two and captured six (1 boy, 1 man, 2 women and 2 girls)...they would again strike less than two weeks later inflicting even more damage but failing to cause injury to or capture any individuals.

April 7, 1747
A Large party of French and Abenaki (approximately 70 men - said to be 700 strong) attack Fort # 4 for 3 days. Capt. Stevens and men were able to hold off the raiding party. Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Governor at Louisburg, Nova Scotia, was in Boston and when he heard of this event he sent an elegant dress sword to Capt. Stevens for his leadership. When Fort No. 4 was chartered by New Hampshire, the town was named "Charlestown" in honor of Admiral Knowles.

April 12, 1678
Treaty of Caso is signed by Sir Edmond Andros. Wabanaki sovereignty recognized and English are permitted to return to their farms on the condition of paying rent for their lands.

April 14, 1974
The first Abenaki "Fish in" is held in VT. A form of civil disobedience (fishing without a VT state license) to call attention to past injustice and force the state to legally deal with the Abenaki.

April 16, 1712
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Exeter, NH. One settler is killed.

April 18, 1746
Abenaki attack Fort #4. John Spafford, Isaac Parker, and Steven Farnsworth were captured and taken to Canada while out with four oxen to fetch boards from the saw mill. The Abenaki burned the saw and grist mills and killed the Oxen for food for the journey north.

April 18, 2006
Bill S.117 granting Abenaki State recognition Passes both the VT House and Senate and is sent to the desk of VT Governor James Douglas.

April 18, 2006
Chief Howard Knight steps down as Chief of the Cowasuck-Horicon Council due to a stroke. Chief Knight selects Associate Chief Brian Chenevert to fill in as Acting Chief along with another are chosen as Acting Associate Chief alongside Associate Chief Emerson Garfield, until a vote can be held.

April 19, 1951
Two Iroquois chiefs from the Two Mountains reserve in Quebec appeared before the Vermont legislature and presented a claim for $89,000.00 for land in the northwestern portion of the state, including Franklin, Grand Isle, Chittenden, Addison, and part of Rutland counties.Gordon Day wrote to Charles Adams, head of a special stated commission appointed to investigate the Iroquois land claims in northern Vermont, informing him that the St. Francis Indians living in Odanak were the only true heirs to the Abenaki who once resided in Vermont.

April 22, 1708
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Wells, ME. One settler is captured.

April 22, 2007 
Koasek Citizen, Lorraine Barney petitions the state of NH to change the name of the Baker River back to its original Abenaki name.

April 22, 2011
Governor of Vermont signed documents recognizing the El Nu and Nulhegan Abenaki Tribes.

April 23, 1746
Abenakis raid Upper Ashuelot (today known as Keene, NH). Ephriam Dorman left the fort in search of his cow. He saw several Indians lying in the underbrush waiting to attack. He gave the alarm. Two Indians attacked Dorman, but he escaped and reached the fort safely. Two residents of the town were killed and one captured, Nathan Blake. Several homes were set on fire.

April 24, 1874
A petition is sent from the Abenaki Indians of St. Francois to the Governor to emancipate the settlement/mission at Odanak, stating that the Indians there wished to continue the circumstances of their relationship with the government. 17 Abenakis attack Oyster River, NH and 1 settler is killed.

April 25, 2001
An Abenaki burial site is uncovered during electrical excavation at Holderness, NH, and state authorities were alerted within hours. The State Archaeologist notified the Abenaki at Swanton. The remains were ceremonially re-interred before sunset that same day.

April 26, 1704
Abenaki ambush Exeter, NH and kill 1 capture 2 settlers.

April 27, 1706
A group of Abenakis raid a house in Oyster River, NH. Eight settlers are killed and two are wounded.

April 27, 2006
The name Horicon is dropped for historical cohesiveness and council name becomes Cowasuck (Coos) Traditional Band Council of the Sovereign Abenaki Nation.

April 28, 1704
Abenaki ambush settlers in Cocheco, NH which results in 1 settler wounded.

April 29, 1711
An Abenaki party ambush settlers in Wells, ME. Two settlers are killed.

April 30, 2007 
Koasek Traditional Band sends official petition for State recognition as an Abenaki tribe to VT state governor Jim Douglas.

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May 1709 (Exact date Unknown)
A party of Abenaki attack Oyster River, NH. One settler is killed.

May 2010
Annual Koasek Abenaki Nation council meeting and pot luck dinner for all citizens held at Sub-Chief Paul Bunnell’s home in Milford, New Hampshire.

May 2, 1746
Abenaki attack Fort #4. Seth Putnam Jr., the brother of Ebenezer Putnam, was killed as he went to the barn that morning. The Abenakis soon retreated but not before two warriors had been killed.

May 2, 2006
Associate Chief Emerson Garfield, upset that he was not chosen to fill in as Acting Chief separates from the Band with his family including his niece (and Band Secretary) Kimberly Merriam to form the Cowasuck-Horicon Council of the Abenaki in Vermont.

May 3, 2006
Governor James Douglas signed into law, S.117 State Recognition of the Abenaki People granting official state recognition of the Abenaki as a Native American Tribe at 10 AM on the steps of the Statehouse at Montpelier, Vermont.

May 4, 1705
Twelve Abenakis ambush settlers in Kittery, ME. Five settlers are killed and 5 are taken capture.

May 4, 1993
State of Vermont passed bill granting Abenaki cultural recognition. The bill provides for the preservation of Tribal archaeological artifacts and sites. It also declares the first week of May to be Abenaki Cultural Heritage Celebration Week.

May 4, 1993
The First Abenaki Heritage Celebration Weekend is held in Vermont.

May 5, 1674
The Rev John Elliot preaches to "Wanalancet" in his wigwam at Pawtucket.

May 5, 2006
Chief Nancy Lyons and Chief Brian Chenevert voted in as Co-Chiefs; 2 year terms by electronic proxy vote of band council members.

May 6, 1709
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Exeter, NH. Four settlers are captured.

May 8, 1648
Pennacook Chief, Rawondagon AKA Robinhood signs a deed for sale of land, at Merry-Meeting Bay to James Smith for one peck of Indian corn annually on the first of November to him or his heirs. This is the first known record of the Indian known as Robinhood.

May 9, 1725
Lovewell's Fight - As the militiamen were being led in prayer by chaplain Jonathan Frye a lone Abenaki warrior was spotted. Captain John Lovewell's men waited till the warrior was close and fired at him but missed, the Indian returned fire killing Lovewell. Ensign Seth Wyman, Lovewell's second in command, killed the warrior with the next shot. Chaplain Frye than scalped the dead Indian. The militia had left their packs a ways back so as to be unencumbered by them in battle. Two returning war parties of Abenaki led by Paugus and Nat found them and waited in ambush for the returning militia. Eight men were killed in the first volley by the Abenaki warriors.

The battle continued for more than 10 hours till Ensign Wyman killed Paugus. With the death of Paugus the rest of the Indians soon vanished into the forest. Only 20 of the militiamen survived the battle; three died on the retreat home the Abenaki losses except for Paugus are unknown. The Abenakis deserted the town of Pequawket after the battle and fled to Canada.

May 9, 1996
NAGPRA notice put into federal register returning Abenaki remains to the Abenaki.


May 11, 1704
Abenaki ambush settlers in Wells, ME, 2 settlers are killed and 1 captured.

May 11, 1704
A Joint Abenaki and Pocumtuck raiding party attacks Northampton Farms, MA (Now Easthampton - Pascommuck) in the CT river valley.

May 11, 1754
A party of Abenaki attack Stevenstown, (now Salisbury, NH) and the part of Franklin, west of the river, about five miles from the settlement at Contoocook and raid the houses of William Emery and Nathaniel Meloon. Traces of the Abenaki, had been discovered the day before, and Emery had taken his family to the garrison, the evening before and they escaped captivity. Meloon and his family were all at home, except his oldest son, who happened to be in the field at work.

May 13, 1677
Kennebec Chief, Mogg and a large group of warrors attacked the Black Point garrison. Tippen successfully defended the garrison for three days, loosing only three men. On the third day, Tippen himself shot and killed Mogg.

May 14, 1712
A party of 30 French and Abenaki are involved in a skirmish in York, ME. One settler is killed and seven taken captive.

May 14, 1756
An Abenaki party lead by Chief Polin ambush farmers in Windham, ME. Two farmers are killed before one of the armed guard's fires a shot which kills Chief Polin.

May 14, 2011
The General Council of the Koasek Traditional Band, through ancient autonomous protocol and through proper petition, have appointed Paul Bunnell, as the acting Chief of the Koasek Traditional Band, and have approved and appointed Nathan Pero as Sub-Chief, for the remainder of the term, or until elections are held within the Band.

May 15, 2007 
The first Koasek Traditional Band Flag is created.

May 17, 1629
The Wheelwright Deed is signed. Passaconaway sachem of Penecook and three sub-chiefs, Runaawitt sachem of Pentucket, Wahangnonawitt sachem of Squomsquot and Wardargoscum sachem of Nuchawanack, signed a deed to Rev. John Wheelright and his associates for land, reserving the right to hunt, fowl, fish and plant."Whereas we the Sagamores of Penecook, Pentucket, Squamsquot, and Nuchawanack are inclined to have the English inhabit amongst us by which means we hope in time to be Strengthened against our Enemies who yearly doth us Damage likewise being persuaded that it will be for the good of us and our Posterity, do hereby covenant and agree with the English as follows - - - in consideration of a Competent valuation in goods already received in Coats, Shirts, and victuals...convey all that part of the Main Land bounded by the River of Pisattaqua and the River of Meremack.....In Witness whereof we have hereunuto set our hands and seals the seventeeth day of May 1629 and in the fifth year of King Charles's reign over England - Passaconaway, Runaawitt, Wahanqnononawitt, Wardargoscum."The validity of this deed has been in question. However, it has not been proven a fake and is the basis for Euroamerican ownership of this land area.

May 19, 1676
A company of 150 Englishmen fell upon a large body of Natives who had gathered at Peskeompscut to fish at the falls. This gathering of Pocumtucks Nipmucs, Narragansetts, Wampanoags, Sokokis and undoubtedly others was taken completely by surprise. Most of those present during the assault appear to have been women, children, and the elderly. Two to three hundred were either killed outright or drowned in the Connecticut River.

May 20, 1690
Le Sieur de Portneuf, with Courtemanche second in command, fifty Frenchmen, gathered as many Abenakis from the St. Francis Mission as they could. By visiting Abenaki villages in Maine he increased their number. Saint-Castin too, came with his Penobscot Indians, and all these with Hertel's men made a body of four or five hundred who destroyed the town of Casco, Maine.

May 21, 1705
Abenaki ambush settlers in Kittery, ME. One settler is killed and one wounded.

May 22, 1707
A party of Abenaki ambush setters in Oyster River, NH. Two settlers were taken captive.

May 24, 1746
Twenty men went out from the Fort #4 (Charlestown, NH) to see where Seth Putnam Jr. had been killed. The Abenaki were waiting and began firing shots at them. Capt. Stevens and some of his militia responded and five of Stevens' men were killed. Four others were wounded and Ensign Obadiah Sartwell was captured. Five Abenaki died in the battle.

May 25, 1664
The Dutch sent mediators on behalf of the Mohawks to make peace with the Sokoki Abenaki. Treaty concluded with Sokoki at a point near the upper CT river.

May 25, 2009
Tribal Council member Nathan Pero re-attains some of our ancient Koasek corn from Charles Calley.

May 28, 1765
Robertson's lease is signed, granting land around Missisquoi Bay and River to James Robertson for a lease of 91 years. The Lease reads as follows: Know all men by these presents, that we Daniel Poorneuf, Francois Abernard, Francois Joseph, Jean Baptiste, Jeanoses, Charlotte, widow of the late chief of the Abenackque nation at Missisque, Mariane Poorneuf, Theresa, daughter of Joseph Michel, Magdalene Abernard, and Joseph Abomsawin, for themselves, heirs, assigns, etc., do sell, let, and concede unto Mr. James Robertson, merchant of St. Jean, his heirs, etc., for the space of ninety one years from the 28th. day of May, 1765, a certain tract of land lying and being situated as follows, viz: being in the bay of Missisque on a certain point of land, which runs out into the said bay and the river of Missisque, running from the mouth up said river near East, one league and a half, and in depth north and south running from each side of the river sixty arpents, bounded on the bank of the aforesaid bay and etc., and at the end of the said league and a half to lands belonging to Indians joining to a tree marked on the south side of the river, said land belonging to old Abernard; and on the north side of said river to lands belonging to old Whitehead; retaining and reserving to the proprietors hereafter mentioned, to wit; on the north side of said river five farms belonging to Pierre Peckenowax, Francois Nichowizet, Annus Jean, Baptiste Momtock, Joseph Comprent, and on the south side of said river seven farms belonging to Towgisheat, Cecile, Annome Quisse, Jemonganz, Willsomquax, Jean Baptiste the Whitehead, and old Etienne, for them and their heirs, said farms contain two arpents in front nearly, and sixty in depth. Now the condition of this lease is, that if the aforesaid James Robertson, himself, his heirs, and assigns or administrators, do pay and accomplish unto the aforesaid Daniel Poorneuf et als, their heirs, etc., a yearly rent of Fourteen Spanish dollars, two bushels of Indian corn and one gallon of rum, and to plow as much land for each of the above persons as shall be sufficient for them to plant their Indian corn each year, not exceeding more than will serve to plant one quarter of a bushel for each family, to them and their heirs and assigns; for which and every said article will and truly accomplished the said James Robertson is to have and to hold for the aforesaid space of time, for himself, his heirs, etc., the aforesaid tract of land as mentioned aforesaid, to build thereon and establish the same for his use, and to concede to inhabitants, make plantations, cut timber of what sort or kind he shall think proper for his use or the use of his heirs, etc., and for the performance of all and every article of the said covenant and agreement either of the said parties beneath himself unto the other firmly by these presents.

May 28, 1704
4 Abenaki ambush settlers in Cochecho NH, no one is injured.

May 29, 2013
Paul Bunnell & Nathan Pero were officially voted in as Chiefs of the Koasek Traditional Band, for another 7 years.

May 31, 1695
Hezekiah Miles, also known as the friendly Indian named Hector, gave a deposition in Boston in the presence of the Lieutenant-Governor and the Council. According to his testimony, the scheme for the Groton raid of July 1694 was hatched at the Indian Fort Amsaquonte, north of Norridgewock in the heart of Maine.

May 31, 1796
Treaty with the Seven Nations of Canada. This treaty ceded all aboriginal land rights to NY. The Seven Nations of Canada consisted of Mohawks of Akwesasne, Mohawks of Kahnawake, Anishinabek(Algonquin, Nipissing and Mohawk of Oka), Hurons of Jeune-Loette, Onandagas of Oswegatchie, Abenaki of St. Francois du Lac and Abenaki of Beacancour.


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June 1697 (Exact Date Unknown)
Wanalancet is buried by Johathan Tyng.

June 1710 (exact date unkown)
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Dover, NH. One settler is killed.

June 1777 (Exact date unknown)
John Borgoyne Invasion. Where Bouquet River empties into Lake Champlain. Burgoyne met with 400 warriors and Sachems of the Abenaki, Iroquois, Ottawa and Algonquin tribes. 'Warriors you are free - go forth in might and valor of your cause-strike at the common enemies of Great Britain and America, disturbers of public order, peace and happiness, destroyers of commerce , parricides of state."By Sept 1777 the majority of Burgoyne's Indians deserted him.

June 1, 1704
Nine Abenaki ambush settlers in Oyster River NH. One settler is killed.

June 1, 1712
A party of Abenaki raid a house in Kittery, ME. One settler is killed and two wounded.

June 2, 1709
A party of Abenaki raid Dunstable, MA. One settler is taken captive.

June 2, 1712
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Kingston, NH. One settler is wounded and one taken captive.

June 2, 1712
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Berwick, ME. One settler is killed.

June 3, 1676
Pennacook Chief, Wannalancet shows up in Dover NH with several others of his sachems and brought some English captives, and also the Indians who had been engaged in the killing of Thomas Kembal of Bradford, a month before, and the capture of his family. This Indian was called "Symon" in the petition of Kembal's widow for redress, August 1, 1676. Two others were taken and delivered up at this time, "Andrew" who was implicated with Symon, and Peter, engaged in another crime; these were delivered by Wannalancet and his chiefs, and the captives, among them Kembal's family, were offered as a token of their repentance and as an atonement for their crime. But our magistrates, a little doubtful that the price was sufficient, threw these three Indians into prison at Dover for the time, from which they soon escaped, and going to the Eastward joined the Kennebec and Ammoscoggins in the renewed hostilities later on.

June 3, 2007 
Koasek corn seed planted on tribal citizen’s land on the banks of the CT River in Haverhill, NH.

June 4, 1706
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Cochecho, NH. Two settlers are killed and one captured.

June 6, 1706
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Kittery, ME. One settler is killed and one captured.

June 6, 2007 
Koasek Traditional Band is contacted by a NH citizen who wishes to donate land in Charlestown, NH to the Koasek Band.

June 10, 1697
An Abenaki raiding party attacks Salisbury, MA. Samuel Gill is taken captive and brought to the St Francois-du-Lac Indian village. He was ten years old at the time of his captivity. By about 1715, at the age of about 28 years, he married another New England captive known as Rosalie James. They are adopted by the Abenaki and become the ancestors of many English/Abenaki descendants. Several of this family became leaders among the Abenaki People of Village of St. Francois-du- Lac. (They would also go on to marry into the Chenevert family.)

June 11, 1709
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Exeter, NH. One settler is killed.

June 12, 1992
The Vermont Supreme court overturned the 1989 ruling by District court Judge Joseph Wolchik that upheld Abenaki aboriginal title and rights to the part of Abenaki ancestral land now known as northwestern Vermont. It is a signal and an alibi for a new round of State harassment of the Abenaki Nation.

June 13, 1704
Cowasucks refuse offer of Governor Vaudreuil to resettle in the St. Lawrence valley under protection of the French.Speech of the Abenaki of Cowasuck to the Governor-General:"Father, to tell the truth you have shown great care for me in inviting me to come and settle on your lands. However, I cannot bring myself to come there because the English have already struck me too hard. I believe, therefore, that the only place where I can strike back against the English is the place I come from, which is called Cowasuck. I could not do that easily if I was in your country." (Presented a wampum belt.)"Father, hear me, I wish to remain at Cowasuck. It is true you have acted well in offering me a fort on your lands, and that would have been good if we had been at peace as we used to be, and we could have done it easily. But hear me, I am a warrior. I offer you my village which is like a fort thrust towards the enemy, so that your lands on this side can be protected, and so that you can think of me as 'my child who is at Cowasuck to carry on the war and protect me, serving as a palisade against my enemies.'"National Archives of Canada, MG1 F3, vol.2:407-10;

June 13, 1754
Massachusetts declares war against the Norridgewocks.

June 13, 1988
The St. Francis/Sokoki band lays claim to the Missisquoi Wildlife Refuge.

Mid-June 1704 (Exact date unknown)
A party led by Caleb Lyman of North Hampton MA and five Mohegans, attacked the village of Cowass-Koas (Now Newbury VT) and killed 8 Cowasucks.

June 16, 1707
A party of seven Abenaki attack Kittery, ME. Six settlers are killed.

June 16, 2009
Sub-Chief Paul Bunnell attends a meeting/seminar on Grants for Native American Tribes put on at UMASS Boston.

June 19, 1727
An article appears in The New England Weekly Journal which reads:"We hear from the eastward that some days ago died there Old Escumbuit, who was formerly the principal sagamore of the (now dispersed) tribe of Saco or Pigwacket Indians .... He, Hercules-like, had a famous club, which he always carried with him, and on which he made ninty-eight notches, being the number of Englishmen that he had killed with his own hands.... He had formerly made discovery of a very fine silver mine up Saco River, but could never be persuaded to tell whereabouts it was till very lately he was prevailed with to promise to carry an Englishman John Newsholm, a trader from Maine (who had several times been in quest of it) to the spot, and endeavored to do it. But upon their way, when they got within a few miles of it, he fell sick, and in a short time died; having first gave the Englishman all the directions he was able for the finding out of said mine, who is resolved to prosecute the matter, hoping still to make discovery of it."

June 19, 1746
"The Battle of the Causeway." A group of Abenaki attack Fort #4 (Charlestown, NH). Capt. Phineas Stevens and Capt. Josiah Brown, of Sudbury, went with approximately fifty men to look for horses which had gotten loose. Their dogs began barking an alarm. Abenaki were waiting for them. One man was wounded and later died of these wounds. Three others were wounded but recovered.

June 20, 1703
Massachusetts-Bay Governor Dudley meets with a gathering of 250 Penobscots, Androscoggins, Kennebecs and Pennacooks at Falmouth in which the Indians promised to be "Neuters" in the war between the English and French. The Indians gave Gov. Dudley a belt of Wampum to seal the agreement. Plans were also concluded to establish several trading houses with stated prices and an armorer paid for by MA.

June 20, 1749
Abenaki warriors attack Fort #4 (Charlestown, NH) Obadiah Sartwell and Enos Stevens (son of Capt. Phineas Stevens) were plowing corn at the time. Startwell is killed and Stevens was taken to Canada and remained there for three months.

June 21, 1692
Abenaki attack Wells, ME.

June 22, 1983
Vermont Governor Richard Snelling issues a Proclamation recognizing the St. Francis-Sokoki band of Abenaki as the legitimate representatives of Vermont Abenaki.

June 23, 1694
The Abenaki attack Durham, NH.

June 23, 1710
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Epping, NH. Three settlers are killed and two taken captive.

June 23, 1710
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Exeter, NH. One settler is killed and Five taken captive.

June 23, 1710
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Kingston, NH. Two settlers are killed and two taken captive.

June 24, 1675
Wampanoag warriors killed seven colonists in Swansea in retaliation for a series of injustices suffered at the hands of the English. This raid is generally considered the beginning of King Philip's War, a bloody conflict that would involve every New England colony and all the peoples of the Algonquian nation. Over the next year, members of the Abenaki, Narragansett, Nipmuc, Pocumtuck and Wampanoag tribes attacked more than half of all the settlements in New England and reduced about a dozen towns in Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies to ashes.

June 24, 1709
A party of Forty French and 140 Abenaki and allied Indians attack Deerfield, MA. Two settlers are killed and two taken captive.

June 25, 1696
The Abenaki attack Dover, NH. The settlers were over powered by the Abenaki and tried to escape to the garrison house but were intercepted.

June 25, 2006
Band membership voted to take back the traditional spelling of our nation’s name, KOASEK. All council votes were yes.

June 25, 2006
Chief Brian Chenevert & the other Chief take the ancient Cowasuck oath at a Cowasuck tribal gathering held in Randolph, VT.

June 26, 1696
In the pre-dawn hours Abenaki attacked the settlement at Portsmouth Plains and killed fourteen people, burned five houses and nine barns, and took several captives.

June 26, 1746
A party of Abenaki attack Bridgeman fort in Hindsdale, NH (now Vernon, VT), killed one person and captured several others.

June 27, 1689
Pennacook Chief, Kancamagus helped lead a successful joint Pennacook-Saco (Pigwacket) raid on Dover, NH making Major Richard Waldron a special target in retribution for Waldron's trickery against hundreds of Indians at a bogus "conference" in fall 1676, during King Philip's War. That night an Indian woman appeared at four of the five Cochecho garrisons requesting shelter for the night. Because it was a common request, they were taken in. That night each undefended garrison was opened silently from the inside and the Penacook war parties rushed in. Waldron, then 74, is said to have wielded his sword in defense. He was tied to a chair and cut across the chest repeatedly as each warrior symbolically "crossed out" his trading account with the distrusted merchant. His ears and nose were cut off and shoved into his mouth. After he was forced to fall on his own sword, the attackers cut off his hand. The garrison was burned and his family killed or captured. The result of the attack was 23 killed and 29 captured and 6 houses burned.

June 27, 1755
A party of 12 Abenaki Indians attacked Caleb Howe, Hilkiah Grout and Benjamin Gaffield as they were returning to Fort Hinsdale, NH from the meadow by the river where they had been hoeing corn. Caleb was on horseback with his two oldest sons. He was shot, the two boys were captured. Gaffield and Grout tried to escape by swimming the river. Grout made it, but Gaffield drowned. The Abenaki then entered the fort house. Three women were made captives, along with nine children; three Grouts, one Gaffield, and five Howes.

June 28, 1689
An Abenaki raiding party attacks Cocheco (Now Dover, NH). 23 settlers are killed and 29 captured.

June 30, 1709
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Oyster River, NH. One settler is killed.

June 30, 1755
Abenaki warriors attack the fort in Upper Ashuelot (Now Keene, NH) however there are no casualties on either side.

June 30, 1796
Philip sold some 3,000 square miles straddling the border to four men; Thomas Eames and 3 associates that called themselves the Eastern Company. The price was a simple promise to keep Philip and his two wives well fed and clothed for the rest of their lives and allow all other band members fishing and hunting rights on the land in perpetuity. This deed was signed by Phillip, Molly Mussell, and Mooselock Sullsop.The 3,000 square miles included: from Umbagog and Mooselookmeguntic Lakes in the East (the headwaters of the Megalloway and Androscoggin Rivers; South to the junction of the Ammonoosuc with the Connecticut; West to the western shore of Lake Memphremagog up the Clyde and along the Nulhegan; and North to the junction of the Salmon and St Francis Rivers. Some of the land had already been colonized by English and Anglo-American settlers. Sherbrook was begun in 1744 and the first US census of 1790 lists 700 white colonists in the upper Connecticut-Memphremagog region.

This land sale was actually illegal since the Federal Non-Intercourse Act of 1791 prohibited any agency other than the US government from buying Indian lands within the territory claimed by the United States (as about half of this parcel did.) Also in 1793 the Continental Congress wrote up a law forbidding private citizens to buy land from the Indians. The state of NH had a similar law on the books as early as 1719. The land was of little agricultural use to the purchasers who turned around and resold it to naïve English settlers at considerable profit.

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July 1688 (Exact date Unkown)
A raiding party sweeps down from Canada into the CT River Valley of MA. Several English colonists as well as "friendly Indians" are killed. The leader of this party was Wampolack, a Pennacook. Joining him were five other Pennacooks including Walamaqueet who had formerly lived at Halfe Moon, a Schaghticoke village just north of Albany NY, and Nimeneat from Pennacook. Two others were originally from Quabog, which was Nipmuc Country. One was a Nasawch (Nashua). Another from Pakantecooke, meaning Pocumtcuk and the remaining one was a Wappinger whose original home would have been along the lower Hudson river.

July 1707 (Exact date Unknown)
The Penobscot, Wolinak and St. Francois agree to peace with New England. Grey Lock is noticeably absent from the treaty signed at Montreal, but shortly afterwards - probably honoring the request of the Abenaki at St. Francois - he ended the war but never signed any agreement with the English.

July 1712 (Exact date Unknown)
A party of Abenaki attack Dover, NH. Two settlers are killed.

July 1721 (Exact date Unknown)
The Abenaki deliver a letter to Capt. John Penhallow at Watts Garrison Arrowsic Island by a flotilla of approximately 90 Abenaki canoes. The letter reads as follows:"Great Chief of the English:You see by the peace treaty, of which I send you a copy, that you must live peaceably with me. Is it to live in peace with me to take my land against my wishes? My land that I have received from God alone, my land of which no king nor any foreign power could or can dispose of in spite of me, that which you have nevertheless done for several years, in establishing and fortifying yourself therein against my will, as you have done in my river of Anmirkangan, of Kenibekki, in that of Matsih8an8wassis, and elsewhere, and most recently in my river of Anm8kangan, where I have been surprised to see a fort which they tell me is built by your orders.""Consider, great Chief, that I have often told you to retire from my land, and I repeat it to you now for the last time. My land is not yours, neither by right of conquest, nor by gift, nor by purchase ...I await then your reply within three Sundays; if within this time you do not write me that you are retiring from my land, I shall not tell you again to withdraw, and I shall believe that you wish to make yourself master of it in spite of me. As for the rest, this here is not the word of four or five Indians whom by your presents, your lies and your tricks you can easily make fall in with your sentiments; this is the word of all the Abenaki nation spread over this continent and in Canada, and of all the other Christian Indians their allies, who ... all together summon you to retire from off the land of the Abenakis that you wish to usurp unjustly ...""If some particular Indians, addicted to strong drink, tell you to settle where you settled at other times, know that all the nation disavows this permission, and that I shall come bum these houses after pillaging them. ...""... last winter ... you made [six Indian representatives] enter a house and then surrounded it with nearly 200 Englishmen armed with pistols and swords, and compelled four of them to remain for the cattle that had been killed. You have conducted these four men as prisoners to Boston. You had promised to return these four men upon receiving 200 beavers. The beavers have been given, and now you are retaining these men. By what right?"

July 1770 (Exact Date Unknown)
A conference was held at German Flats ( near Herkimer NY) with 78 Indians from Caughnawaga and St.Regis. There were also delegates from the Six Nations, Cherokees and several other tribes. The delegation reminded Johnson that the Abenaki were still at St Regis. At the conference the Abenaki from St.Regis produced documentation from Governor Carlton granting them the right to settle at St.Regis.

July 3, 1676
Treaty signed in Dover NH by Wannalancet and other Sagamos which reads as follows: 

Pascataqua River, Cochecho

At a meeting of ye Committee appointed by ye Honord Genl Court for to treat ye Indians of the Eastern Parts in order for ye procuring an Honble Peace with them, Wee wth ye mutuall consent of ye Sagamores Underwritten in behalfe of themselves & the Men -- Indians belonging to them being about 300 in Number, have agreed as followeth:

1ly That henceforwards none of ye said Indians shall offer any Violence to ye persons of any English, nor doe any Damage to theyr Estates in any kind whatsoever. And if any Indian or Indians shall offend herein they shall bring or cause to bee brought ye offender to some English authority, there to be prosecuted by ye English Lawes according to ye Nature of ye Offence.

2ly That none of said Indians shall entertain at any Time any of our Enemies, but shall give psent notice to ye Comittee when any come among them, Ingaging to goe forth wth ye English against them (if desired) in order to ye seizing of them. And if any of sd Indians shall themselves at any time bring such or Enemies unto us, they shall for their Reward have œ3, for each they shall so bring in.

3ly The Indians performing on theyr part, as is before expressed, wee ye Committee doe ingage in ye behalfe of ye English not to offer any Violence to any of their persons or estates, and if any injury be offered to said Indians by any English, they complaining to Authority, ye offender shall be prosecuted by English Lawes according to ye nature of ye offence. In witnes to each & all ye pmises we have mutually shaken hands and subscribed or Names.



Committee Nic: Shapleigh, Mr. WM Sagamore

Tho: Daniel, SQUANDO, Sagamore


Mass. Arch., vol. 30, p. 206.

July 3, 1706
A party of Abenaki raid Haverhill MA. One settler is killed.

July 3, 1706

A party of Abenaki attack Dunstable, MA. Nine settlers are killed, five wounded and one captured

July 4, 1706
A party of 40 Abenaki attack Amesbury, MA. Ten settlers are killed.

July 4, 1706
Abenaki are blamed for the slaughter of some cattle in Kingston, NH.

July 5, 1752
St.Francis Abenaki meet with Captain Phineas Stevens, a delegate from the Governor of Boston, in presence of the Baron de Longueuil, Governor of Montreal, Commandant of Canada and of the Iroquois of the Sault Saint-Louis and of the Lake of the Two Mountains.


Speech by the Cowasuck Chief Atiwaneto at the conference:

"We hear on all that this Governor and the Bostonians say that the Abenakis are bad people. Tis in vain that we are taxed with having a bad heart. It is you, brother, that always attacks us;your mouth is of suger but your heart of gall. In truth, the moment you begin we are on our guard. ...We have not yet sold the lands we inhabit, we wish to keep the possessio of them, Our elders have been willing to tolerate you, brothers englishmen, on the seaboard as far as Sakwakwato, as that has been so decided, we wish it to be so. But we will not cede one single inch of the lands we inhabit beyond what has been already decided formerly by our fathers....we expressly forbid you to kill a single beaver, or to take a single stick of timber on the lands we inhabit. If you want timber we'll sell you some, but you shall not take it without our permission...[...]" "Who hath authorized you to have those lands surveyed? On condition that you will not encroach on those lands we will be at peace....I repeat to you.....that it depends on yourselves to be at peace with the Abenakis. Our French Father who is here present has nothing to do with what we say to you: we speak to you of our own accord....He is only as a witness to our words. We acknowledge no other bounderies of yours than your settlements whereon you have built and we will not under any pretext whatsoever, let you pass beyond them. The lands we possess have been given to us by the Master of Life. We acknowledge to hold only from him. We are entirely free."

July 6, 1750
A messenger is sent inviting the Norridgewock and Arresaguntacook (St.Francis/Odanak) to be present at a trial of a man accused of killing Wiscasset Indians.

July 7, 1694
Abenaki warriors raid the frontier town of Groton, MA on the western edge of Middlesex County. Striking at daybreak, they killed 20 people and took 12 captives.

July 8, 1707
A party of 30 Abenaki attack Oyster River, NH. Two settlers are captured.

July 10, 1745
Abenaki attack Upper Ashuelot (now Keene, NH). Josiah Fisher was killed and scalped while driving his cow to pasture. Fisher started out from his home, the present site of the Wyman Tavern on Main Street, to drive his cow to pasture. He traveled up Main Street and turned off on a side road near the present Lamson Street. It was here that Fisher met his fate. He was found at that spot later in the day, killed and scalped.

July 11, 1713
A treaty between the Abenaki Indians and Massachusetts-Bay governor, Joseph Dudley was signed. The Queen Anne's War came to an end.

July 11, 1727
The Abenaki hold a Conference with the English. Sabatis, requested the English keep supplies at Brunswick, saying, "in cold winters and deep snows, my men unable to go to fort Richmond, sometimes suffer."

July 13, 1713
The Portsmouth Indian Treaty of 1713 is signed in Portsmouth NH by "delegates of Indians belonging to Norrigawake, Narrakamegock, Amascontoog, Pigwacket, Pennacook, and to all other Indian plantations situated on the Rivers of St. Johns, Penobscot, Kenibeck, Amascogon, Saco, and Merrimack, and all other Indian plantations lying between the said Rivers of St. Johns and Merrimack."

July 15, 1720
In a document sent to Boston the Norridgewock dispute the validity of the English title to lands transferred by the Androscoggins in 1714.

June 15, 2007 
Chief Brian Chenevert begins to work with Father Vincent Lapomarda of the College of the Holy Cross to locate the Ancient Jesuit Mission Village of Koas located on the Connecticut River in the present area of Newbury, VT.

July 18, 1694
Oyster River Plantation (now Durham, NH) is attacked and destroyed by French career soldier Sebastien de Villieu along with 250 Pennacook and Eastern Abenaki under command of Sagmo Bomazeen. In all, 45 inhabitants were killed and 49 taken captive, with half the dwellings, including 5 garrisons, burned to the ground. Crops were destroyed and livestock killed, causing famine and destitution for survivors.

July 18, 1694
A party of Abenakis led by Chief Taxous attack Oyster River, NH. The Jesuit Jacques Bigot and Sulpician Louis Thury accompanied them. Approximately ninety settlers were killed or captured. The Abenaki then continued overland directly southwest to Groton, MA spanning some seventy miles.

July 18, 1712
A party of Abenaki attack Wells, ME. One settler is killed and one taken captive.

July 19, 2007 
The Koasek Traditional Band’s Tribal Council re-submits a letter of Intent to file for Federal Recognition to the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

July 19, 2007 
Chief Brian Chenevert discovers a set of 50 CD’s of Stephen Laurent’s reading of Father Joseph Aubrey’s French-Abenaki Dictionary.  The process of developing the funds for purchasing and copying the CD’s is begun.

July 20, 1704
An Abenaki war party ambush settlers in Casco ME. One settler is killed and one captured.

July 20, 1707
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Groton, MA. Three settlers are killed.

July 20, 2006
Vote taken and approved to reclaim traditional tribal name.  Band name is changed to Koasek (Cowasuck) Traditional Band of the Sovereign Abenaki Nation.

July 21, 1723
A party of Abenaki raid Casco Bay, ME. Five English are killed including Captain Watkins.

July 22, 1707
A party of seven Abenaki ambush settlers in Exeter, NH. One settler is wounded.

July 23, 1706
A party of 20 Abenaki attack Exeter, NH. Four settlers are killed, one wounded and three captured.

July 23, 1714
Delegates from the Androscoggin have a conference with the English in which they transfer some lands.

July 25, 1694
A party of Abenakis led by Chief Taxous attack Groton, MA. At early dawn they released cattle from their enclosure into a cornfield, setting up an ambush. Settlers raced out to retrieve the straying cows. William and Deliverance Longley as well as several others were killed. All captives of both raids (Oyster River, NH & Groton, MA) were taken to Pennacook then to Norridgewock then on to either Fort Pemaquid or Canada.

July 27, 1657
A land-deed is signed by Saco Chief Scitterygussett, conveying to one Francis Small a huge tract of land in Falmouth, ME (now Portland)--for annual payment of "one Trading Coate & one Gallone of Lyquors."

July 28, 1721
A council of English Fort of Menaskoux at the mouth of Narautsouak River. Abenaki Nation represented. References made to Treaty of Utrecht. Hostilities on both sides.

July 29, 1767
A letter is written by the Abenaki and is forwarded to Boston by James Flagg; in the address they complained that a whole family of their tribe, Joseph, his wife Molly-Aeneas and two daughters, Hannah (age 14), and Prasawa-Francis (age 4) were robbed and murdered at Sebago Pond at the head of the Stroudwater River; he Abenaki suspect Daniel Astin. The complaint was witnessed by Gersho Flagg, who later signed an affidavit in Boston.

July 31, 1690
A party of French and Abenaki raid Falmouth, ME (now Portland, ME).

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August 1709
A party of Abenaki attack Wells, ME. One settler is killed and one taken captive.

August 1775 (Exact Date Unkown)
Representatives from St Francis, St Johns and the Penobscot visited Cambridge Ma. They met with George Washington to offer their services. Four St Francis Indians stayed on to join the Americans. Their Chief went to Ticonderoga with the Stockbridge Missisquoi Indians collected rent on their lands.

August 1, 1706
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in wells, ME. Two settlers are killed.

August 1, 1706
Eight Abenaki ambush settlers in Hampton, NH. One settler is killed and one taken captive.

August 1, 1735
An agreement covering "amity and commerce" is reached by representatives of the British in New York, and Western Abenaki, Housatonic, Mohegan and Scaghticoke Indians.

August 2, 1689
A war party of 100 Abenaki attack fort Pemaquid, Maine. The fort is occupied by thirty men, led by Lieutenant James Weems. The soldiers eventually surrender, and those who aren't killed, are taken as prisoners to Canada.

August 2, 1710
A party of 40-50 French and Abenaki attack winter Harbor, ME. One settler is killed and two taken captive.

August 3, 1746
Abenaki warriors attack Fort #4. Dogs began barking and scouts were sent out of the fort to see what was going on. They were attacked and one man was killed. The attack continued for two days. Several buildings were burned, including the mills that were in the process of being rebuilt. 16 horses, some cows and hogs were killed. Captain Stevens and 60 men had been at Great Meadows, Putney, Vt. when this occurred. Most families abandoned the Fort and returned to Massachusetts. Six men were left to guard the Fort until winter set in and they left also.

August 4, 1706
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Haverhill, MA. Two settlers are killed.

August 4, 1742
A meeting is held between representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the Maliseet, Norridgewock, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Pigwacket and St. Francis Indians regarding trade problems.

August 8, 1648
Monquine a.k.a. Natahanada, son of Natawormett sagamore of the Kennebeck, sold to William Bradford and others, all the land on both sides of the Kennebeck River "from Cussenocke upwards to Wesserunsicke." The signature is "Monquine, alias Dumhanada." Then follows: "We, agodoademago, the sonne of Wasshemett, and Tassucke, the brother of Natahanada, do consent freely unto the sale to Bradford, Paddy, and Others."

August 8, 1704
Abenaki ambush Exeter, NH. One settler is killed.

August 9, 1710
A party of Abenaki attack winter Harbor, ME. Three settlers are killed and six taken captive.

August 10, 1703
A raiding party of 20 French and 500 Abenaki attack Cape Porpoise, ME (later called Arundel then Kennbunkport). Of those taken into captivity are Mrs. Durrill, her two daughters, Susan and Rachel, and two sons Benjamin and an infant Phillip. They carried their prisoners as far as Pigwacket or Fryeburg, when Mrs. Durrill persuaded them to let her return with her infant. One of the Indians carried her child for her to the stone fort at Saco, from which place she returned home. Her daughters married Frenchmen, and refused to return after the war was over. The captives are on the list of 1710/11 prisoners as "Benjamin Dudy, Rachel Dudy, Sarah Dudy."

August 10, 1703
Abenaki raiding parties simultaneously attacked the settlements of Wells ME with 22 killed and 17 captured, Cape Pourpoise ME with10 captured, Winter Harbor ME, Saco ME with 11 killed and 24 captured, Spurwink ME with 13 killed and 9 captured, Scarborough ME, Perpooduck ME with 25 killed and 8 captured, and Casco ME with 2 killed and 1 captured.

August 10, 1704
An Abenaki war party attack Wells, ME. Three settlers are captured.

August 10, 1706
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Dover, NH. One settler is killed and one taken captive.

August 10, 1707
A party of 40-50 French and Abenaki attack York-Wells, ME. Four settlers are killed and one taken captive.

August 11, 1693
The Treaty of Pemiquid is signed by Madockawando. The treaty, however, was more like a document of surrender and not accepted by many tribes.


August 11, 1704
Eight Abenaki ambush Dover, NH. Two settlers are killed.

August 11, 1704
Abenaki ambush York, ME. One settler is killed.

August 12, 1717
Treaty of Georgetown, on Arrowsick Island is "signed by Sachems and Cheifs of the Kennebeck, Penobscut, Pegwackit and Saco."

August 14, 1696
A party of French and Abenaki attack Fort William Henry, at Pemaquid, by land and sea.  The English officer in charge, Captain Pascoe Chubb surrendered without firing a shot. Chubb and his garrison were sent to Boston. The fort was burnt to the ground.

August 14, 1765
Representatives of the St. Francis Abenaki (Odanak) attend a conference in Boston, MA.

August 14, 1979
Articles of Association were signed for the formation of the Abenaki Nation of Vermont, the Incorporators at the time were:Chief Arthur Seymour of the Missisiquoi BandChief Wayne Hoague of the Green Mountain BandChief Richard W. Phillips of the Eastern Woodlands BandIn 1981 Chief Joe Perro of the Coos Band signed the agreement adding yet another band to the Nation/Confederation.

August 15, 1689
A party of French and Abenaki attacked Fort Pemequid near Kennebec, Maine.

August 15, 1696
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, with two ships and the support of 240 Abenakis under Saint-Castin and 25 soldiers under Villieu, attacked Fort William Henry, Maine defended by only 95 men under the command of Pascoe Chubb who would surrender.

August 15, 1754
A party of Abenaki attacked the house of Mr. Phillip Call, in Stevenstown(Now Salisbury, NH). Mrs. Call, her daughter-in-law, wife of Phillip Call, Jr. and an infant were alone in the house, while the Calls, father and son, and Timothy Cook their hired man, were at work in the field. The Calls, father and son, and Cook attempted to get into the house before the Abenaki, but did not succeed. At the approach of the Indians, Mrs. Call met them at the door, and was immediately killed with a blow from a tomahawk. The younger Mrs. Call, with her infant in her arms, crawled into a hole behind the chimney. The Men seeing the number (approximately 30) of the Abenaki fled to the woods and the Calls escaped. Cook ran to the river and plunged in but was shot in the water, and his scalp taken. The Abenaki rifled the house, took Mrs. Call's scalp, and then retreated up the river.The Calls soon notified the garrison at Contoocook of the attack, and a party of eight men followed in pursuit. The Abenaki waited in ambush for them, but showed themselves too soon, and the English escaped to the woods with the exception of Enos Bishop who was taken and carried to Canada as a captive.

August 15, 1837
The following article appeared in The Gazette and Mercury of Greenfield MA: "A visit - Our people were thrown into a state of considerable emotion last Monday evening and Tuesday, by the encampment of a body of Indians from Canada, about twenty five in number who took up their lodgings in the woods near the house of Samuel Picket Esq. about three miles from the village. They remained there until about four o'clock on Tuesday, when they passed through the village and went to Deerfield where they encamped, and still remain. They appear to be comfortably well off for Indians, having several horses and wagons, and a goodly supply of blankets and buffalo robes. They are of the St. Francis tribe, in Canada, and are descendants of Eunice Williams, daughter of Rev. John Williams, who, it will be recollected, was, with his family, carried captive when Deerfield was destroyed in 1704. One of the party, a woman of 86 years, the mother of the rest, is grand daughter to Eunice. She scorns the effeminate comforts of civilized life as much as her grandmother did when she visited her afflicted Father, and resists every importunity to lodge indoors. They are very hospitably treated by the Deerfield people. We understand they will return to their homes, from which they have been absent nearly a year, by the way of Albany."

August 16, 1775
Swashon, an Abenaki Chief addressed the Massachusetts House of Representatives, "As our Ancestors gave this country to you, we would not have you destroyed by England; but are ready to afford you our assistance."

August 17, 1703
A party of 30 Abenaki attack Hampton, NH in which 5 English are killed.

August 18, 1760
The Treaty of Kahnawake is signed by the Seven Nations of Canada which included the Mohawks of Akwesasne and Kahnawake, the Mohawks, Algonquins and Nipissings of Kanesetake/Oka, the Abenaki of Bécancour and Odanak; the Hurons of Jeune Lorette, and the Onondagas of Oswegatchie. http://www3.sympatico.ca/donald.macleod2/border.html

August 19, 1704
A party of Abenaki ambush Oyster River, NH. At least one settler is killed.

August 20, 1976
Abenakis of Odanak and Becancour(Wolinak) pass a resolution acknowledging Vermont Abenaki.

August 20, 1994
Unity of Councils agreement signed in Evansville, VT. This agreement was signed by the tribal leaders of Abenaki bands at that time bringing them into Unity as the Sovereign Republic of the Abenaki Nation. Homer St. Francis was named Grand Chief and Walter Watso, Assoc. Grand Chief.

The Unity Agreement was signed by:

Ray Lussier - Grand Council of the Allied Bands of Southern New England
Roland Demers - Sherbrooke Aboriginal Community Council
Pierre Heroux Richards - Sorel Aboriginal Community Council
Ray Milano - Athens Council
R. Hunt - White Bison Abenaki Council of New Hampshire
???? - Empire State Council of NY
Howard F Knight - Northeast Woodlands Coos/Cowasuck of North America
Walter Watso - Odanak


Emerson Garfield - Cowasuck/Coos band
John Lawyer - St. Francis/Sokoki band
Roger Lucas - Cowasuck/Coos band
Brian Lemois - Cowasuck band
Darrel Larocque - St. Francis/Sokoki band
Melody Nunn - Cowasuck/Coos band
Phil Thibault - St. Francis/Sokoki band
Ina Delany - St. Francis/Sokoki band
Phil Martin - Cowasuck/Coos band Mass
Harry Shover - Cowasuck/Coos band
Nancy Lemois - Cowasuck band
Phenix Hearn - St. Francis/Sokoki band
Edward Verge - Abenaki Nation NE VT.

August 21, 1689
A force of French and Abenaki attack Fort Charles, Maine killing 16 settlers.

August 21, 1747
A party of Pennacook-Abenaki raid Epsom, New Hampshire. Plausawa and his companions Sabattis and Christo captured Isabella McCoy and burned her farm and the neighboring farms while her husband Charles McCoy was away serving in the New Hampshire Militia. Isabelle McCoy told of the very good treatment she received by Plausawa on her way to Quebec where Plausawa sold her as a servant to a French Canadian family.

August 23, 1724
The village of Norridgewock is attacked by British forces under Capt. Moulton. Only 150 refugees managed to make it to safety in Canada. Rev. Sebastian Rasle was also killed during the attack.

August 23, 2007 
Chief Brian Chenevert is invited to attend the Dignitaries (Chief’s) dinner held by the Mashantuckt Pequot Nation  and for the Koasek to participate in Cultural Village during the Schemitzun powwow held in CT.

August 25, 1746
Abenaki warriors raid the settlement of Deerfield MA, 5 colonist are killed and one taken captive. The event is captured Lucy Terry Prince in the poem "The Bars Fight", the earliest known poem by a black writer in North America.

August 29, 1708
Pigwacket Abenaki, Chief Escumbuit leads a force of 100 French and 60 Indians in a raid on Haverhill, MA. It is said that he wielded the silver saber given to him by French king Louis XIV during this raid. He was wounded in the foot by a musket ball and never participated in any more raids against the English after this time. Sixteen settlers were killed and seventeen taken captive.

August 29, 1754
Abenaki warriors attack Fort #4 (Charlestown, NH). The family of James Johnson, Miriam Willard, Peter Labaree and Ebenezer Farnsworth were taken captive. Susanna Johnson gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth Captive en route to Canada.

August 29, 1837
The following article appeared in The Gazette and Mercury, Greenfield MA:

"Civilization rebuked by the savages - We are informed that a party of men from this town went over to Deerfield Sabbath before last, to make a visit to the Indians who were encamped there. On going into their lodges, one of the "savages" enquired what the party had come for. "To visit you" was the reply, "We don't receive visits on the Sabbath, please to withdraw" - was the answer. They did withdraw with "a flea in their ear," and these "natives of the forest" quietly and decorously attended divine service. Their revered progenitor, Rev. John Williams, would have rendered heartfelt thanks, to have known that his aboriginal descendants would thus respect divine institutions, and so pointedly and justly rebuke those of his own race, who had so far forgotten their duty to their MAKER as to profane his holy day. This party of Indians have demeaned themselves with impudence, and yet with the utmost propriety. They passed through this village last Friday and took the Albany road, on their return to Canada. They will have become extensive tourists by the time they reach home."

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September 1712(Exact date Unknown)
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Wells, ME. Three settlers are killed and one taken captive.

September 2010
After hard work from the Koasek Abenaki Nation members, Sub-Chief Paul Bunnell, Ret. Chief Howard Knight, Council members, Bernie Mortz and Nathan Pero (son of Chief Pero) along with others achieved the creation of the Native American for Vermont. Koasek Abenaki Nation citizen, Nathan Pero, (son of Chief Pero), and Selectman of West Fairlee, Vt.  applied for the Native American Commission and was accepted by the Governor of Vermont.

September 1, 1712
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Wells, ME. One settler is killed and one wounded.

September 1, 1788
A declaration from Louis Outalamagouine and Xavier is sent to Lt. Col. Campbell at Montreal regarding incidents which took place on an expedition from St. Johns, Canada to "Misiskuoi" to investigate complaints made against Indians there.

September 1, 2006
The first issue since 2000 of the Dawnland Voice, the official Newsletter of the Koasek, is printed. 

September 3, 1700
Conference between Gov. de Callieres and the Iroquois, Algonquin and Acadia Indians (Abenaki that lived Novia Scotia, NB, Prince Ed. Island, and parts of PQ and part of Maine) Abenaki wampum belts exchanged.

September 6, 1676
Waldron's Mock War - Waldron suggested a "sham battle;" the white soldiers would appear to battle the Indians and, natives were allowed to borrow a cannon with which to "defend" themselves. In what is today a drugstore parking lot, Cochecho and Boston militia surrounded the Indians and, likely without loss of life, separated the local natives from the Massachusetts warriors. These 200 natives were marched to Boston where some were hanged and some were sold as slaves. Waldrene had saved Wonalancet's menand the Cochecho pioneers. But the New Hampshire native Pennacooks felt betrayed, and their personal animosity toward Waldron was not forgotten.

September 8, 1685
"Articles of Peace" between the English and Indians of NH & ME are signed.

September 8, 1766
A petition by the "Misiskoui Indians at St. Francis" is sent to the governor of Quebec regarding the appropriation of their lands at "Misiskoui" by English settlers.

September 10, 2010
A Koasek Abenaki Nation delegation lead by Sub-Chief Paul Bunnell, Tribal Judge Ray Lussier, Dan Osgood met with the Wolf Clan (Metis) chief Dumas and council members at their pow wow this day for the use and permission of our Koasek Abenaki Nation for our pow wow.

September 12, 1734
Ompawmet presented a land claim for the Great Meadows in Putney, VT to the English at Ft. Dummer. A note in the Acts and Resolves of the Province of Massachusetts records the following transaction, "Ordered 120 pounds to John Stoddard, Esq. And Captain Israel Williams to be by them paid and delivered to Ompomac Indian upon executing before as many Indian witnesses as may be, a deed of conveyance of his right and title of the Great Meadow, part of the Equivalent Land."

September 12, 2006
A letter is received from Glenn English, the Town Manager of Haverhill NH, in support of the Koasek Cultural Academy.

September 13, 1707
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Exeter, NH. One settler is killed.

September 13, 2006
An original strain of Abenaki corn is returned to the Koasek Traditional Band of the Abenaki Nation by Charlie and Sarah Calley of Newbury VT who inherited the strain of finger-sized sweet corn, known as dwarf flint, from the late Carroll Greene, a farmer in Deering, NH, whose ancestors had been among the first English settlers in the Upper Valley and were given corn seeds by the Abenaki in the 1700’s. The Calley’s have grown the corn every year since they were gifted the corn and felt it appropriate to re-gift it to the Koasek Abenaki Tribal Council.

September 13, 2007
A letter is received from the Counsel to the Governor of VT, Susanne Young, in regards to the Koasek Traditional Band’s petition seeking State Recognition from the State of VT.

September 15, 1707
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Kingston, NH. One settler is killed.

September 17, 1707
A party of 30 Abenaki attack Oyster River, NH. Eight settlers are killed.

September 18, 1675
A column of carts escorted by a company of about 50 soldiers was ambushed while crossing a stream by a party of Pocumtucks, Sokoki and Nipmucs. The English had put their arms in the carts so that they could gather grapes. Almost all of the New England soldiers died in the battle along with 14 men from Deerfield.

September 18, 1708
A small party of Abenaki raid a house in Oyster River, NH. There are no casualties reported.

September 18, 2007
A letter is received from the NH State Archeologist, Richard Boisvert, stating that the Koasek Traditional Band is listed as the contact for the Koasek Abenaki.

September 19, 1677
A party of about 2 dozen Pocumtucks and Norwottucks led by Ashpelon attacked Hatfield. They took several prisoners and moved north to attack Deerfield. The captives became the first New Englanders to make the trek to Canada as prisoners and return.

September 19, 1677
Pennacook Chief, Wonalancet and his followers return from Namaoskeag to Wickasauke Island to find that the land which was granted him by the Court on October 14, 1665, had been taken up and settled by the English. Wonalancet knew that they could not settle there in safety. He then left with some of his followers to live at St. Francois du Lac in Canada.

September 19, 1708
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Kittery, ME. Two settlers are killed.

September 20, 1697
Three treaties were signed at Ryswick.

September 20,2007 
Koasek Tribal Council member Peggy Fullerton assist State NH Archeologist, Richard Boisvert, with a phase one tour of Mike Fenn’s Property in the meadows on the CT River. An arrowhead in mint condition dating 300 to 400 years old was found along with a carving tool.

September 21, 1698
Wanalancet and Worumbo lead a raid on Casco, ME.

September 21, 1707
A party of 150 Abenaki and allied Indians attack Winter Harbor, Maine. Only one reported settler killed.

September 21, 2007
Chief Nancy Millette resigns as Co-Chief of the Koasek Traditional Band, for personal reasons.

September 22, 2009
Tribal Council member Nathan Pero and Elie Joubert of Odanak provide a presentation on the Abenaki to the Daughters of the American Revolution in Haverhill, NH.

September 27, 1996
Abenaki remains housed at the University of Vermont are repatriated and reburied.

September 27, 2007 
With the approval of the Koasek Tribal Council, Chief Brian Chenevert appoints Dr. Raymond Lussier as Tribal Judge.  Additionally, Leo Descoteaux is appointed as temporary Sub-Chief until elections can be held in the following fall.

September 28, 1707
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Berwick, ME. Two settlers are killed and one wounded.

September 29, 1691
A party of 20-40 Abenaki ambush a group of settlers of Sandy Beach (today Rye, NH) along Saltwater Brook while they were cutting hay in the salt marshes. They then moved down Brackett Lane in a series of small attacks on the houses. Ten settlers were killed, three were burned in their homes and seven were taken into captivity and brought to Canada.

September 29, 2003
Gilles O'bomsawin Grand Chief of the Waban-Aki Nation issues a letter to Vermont's Division for Historical Preservation telling them of a Resolution by the governing body of Odanak and Wolinak which rescinded prior recognition of "...Any organizations claiming to be First Nations in the United States or Canada, with the exceptions or our brothers and sisters at Wolinak and Penobscot."

September 30, 1690
Major Benjamin Church and his men attack the village at Amerascogen /Androscoggin. A number of Abenaki were killed but some escaped under the falls.

September 30, 1707
A party of Abenaki ambush settlers in Dover, NH. One settler is taken captive.

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October 1863
GEORGE BURK, CHARLES PARTLOW, JASON VOSBURG, ALBERT OLENA, Four Indians Alburgh, VT; Land and Miscellaneous Records. Book 16, pp. 593-594

October 3, 1631
Saco Chief, Squidrayset a.k.a. Scitterygusset and some other Indians kill Walter Bagnall, a dishonest trader, near the mouth of the Saco River. A crime for which Manatahqua (Black William) an Indian visiting the area from Massachusetts was hanged for in January 1633 on Richmond Island, Maine by a group of Pirate-hunters.

October 4, 1681
La Salle re-supplies his expedition then leaves Michilimackinac with 23 Frenchman and 18 Mohican and Abenaki Indians. He is joined by Tonty and his men, passes through Illinois Town on January 27 and reaches the Mississippi on February 6, 1682 (which La Salle renames "Fleuve Colbert"). The party reaches the mouth of the Mississippi On April 9, 1682. A cross was erected and La Salle read a proclamation by which he claimed the land in the name of this king, Louis XIV. The Royal notary of Fort Frontenac, Jacques de la Metairie, made this acquisition official.

October 4, 1759
Major Robert Rogers attacks and burns St. Francois du Lac during. Rogers claimed to have killed 200 Abenaki (including the French priest), but the French records listed only 30 dead.


October 6, 1703
A party of 120 Abenaki attack Scarborough, ME. 16 settlers are killed and 3 captured.

October 7, 1763
The Royal Proclamation is made. After the Seven Years' War was over, Britain controlled all of North America east of the Mississippi. Settlers from the Thirteen Colonies were anxious to move into the Ohio Valley now that it was free of French influence, but the lands were still in the possession of Indian Nations who were rightly suspicious of 'Yankee' motives and resented their intrusion.

October 7, 1798
Abenaki Chiefs from Odanak protested the right of Phillip to sell their lands in the Philip grant of June 30 1796. Their leader was Capt. Cezar said to be orator of Odanak. Chief Shoasin Manwermet, Chief Taksos, Capt. Cezar, Capt. Benedict, Capt. Portneuf, Capt. Francois Joseph(Annance), Capt. Joseph , (possibly Saonalemit) sold virtually the same land to the Bedel Company for $3,100.00, they deeded a much larger area, from Haverhill on the Connecticut to the Ossipee River on the Maine border, north to the border with Canada. It was this sale that was the basis for New Hampshire's claim to the Indian Stream Territory.

October 8, 1703
An Abenaki raiding party attacks Deerfield MA and takes Zebediah Williams and his stepbrother John Nims into captivity.

October 8, 1749
Treaty with the Eastern Indians at Falmouth, Maine.

October 11, 1745
Nehemiah How is taken captive on the Great Meadow in Putney, VT by Abenaki from St. Francis. How was probably the first Connecticut Valley captive of King George's War (1744-48), he died of fever in a French prison in Quebec.

October 12, 1676
One hundred Indians under the leadership of Kennebec Chief Mogg attack the Black Point Garrison in ME. Being elderly and not wanting to fight, Jocelyn agreed to come out and talk peace and soon surrendered. Later that same day, Mogg's forces captured a 30 ton vessel at Spurwink. Walter Gendal was loading his household possessions with the help of eleven others including the ship's crew and members of the Black Point garrison. They were taken by surprise and did not know the garrison had already fallen. Thus Mogg captured what was reputably the strongest garrison in the east, a ship and more than a dozen prisoners in a single day!

October 13, 1703
An Abenaki raiding party attack York, ME. 6 settlers are killed and 2 captured.

October 14, 1665
A petition signed by Nobhow, Unanunquosett, Wanalancett and Nonatomeut is sent to Boston which states that they did not know where to go to produce their livelihood.

After the sale of Wickasauke Island, where the Penacooks had been residing, The General Court granted them 100 acres "on a great hill about 10 miles west of Chelmsford, because they have a great many children and no planting grounds."

Wonalancetgave up this grant on the condition that the Court should purchase Wickasauke Island back from Ensign John Evered for them. The petition reads as follows:

To the worshipful Richard Bellingham, Esq., Gov.,and the rest of the Honored General Court: The Petition asked that John Webb who let them plant the island since he purchased it be given 500 acres in two places ajoining his land in the wilderness which belonged to Wonalancets people. The 500 acres were given to Webb and the 100 acres in Chelmsford returned to the Court in exchange for Wickosauke Island which was returned to the Pennacook.

October 16, 1749
A treaty is signed between the Wabanaki tribes and the English in Flamouth, ME.

October 15, 1705
18 Abenaki attack Cape Neddick, ME. Two settlers are killed and four captured.

October 16, 1675
A war party of 150 Saco warriors attack Berwick, Maine. One person was killed and one taken into captivity. Lt. Roger Plaisted, commandant of the garrison, sent some of his men after the Indians but, they fell into an ambush and escaped with the loss of three men dead.

October 16, 1749
The renewal of Dummer's treaty of 1727 by the Norridgewock, Penobscot, and Canadian Abenakis which closed five years of hostilities between the Abenaki and Massachusetts.

October 24, 2009
At the Koasek Annual General Council Meeting retired Chief Howard Knight passed down to Chief Brian Chenevert with our tribal historic Chief’s Sash which had been handed down within the Pero family for many generations honoring each chief to wear it with pride until the next chief leads our nation.

October 26, 1708
A small party of Abenaki and allied Indians ambush settlers in Deerfield, MA. One settler is killed. An Abenaki raiding party attack Salmon Falls, NH and 1 settler is killed.

October 28, 2006
One of our Chiefs is guest speaker at the Stowe Ski Museum which inducts Billy Kidd (Abenaki) into Ski Hall of Fame.

October 30, 1995
The Traditional Abenaki of Mazipskwik and Related Bands if formed in response to what they considered the dictatorial attitude of Homer St. Francis and the monopolization of the group by his family members following Homer St. Francis change in the St Francis/Sokoki bands constitution to make the Chief position for lifetime and limited to members of his family. (anonymous provider)

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November 2009
Letters of recognition are exchanged between the Koasek Traditional Band and the Antaya Nation, an Abenaki community in Beauce/Sartigan QC.

November 2, 2008
Paul Bunnell is elected as Sub Chief and takes the Koasek oath of office.

November 3, 1779
George Washington writes to the President of Congress:
"Sir: I have taken the liberty to enclose, for the consideration of Congress, the memorial of Col. Hazen in Behalf of Capt. Joseph Louis Gill Chief of the Abeneeke or St. Francois Tribe of Indians. The fidelity and good services of this Chief, and those of his Tribe, are fully set forth in the memorial."

November 4, 1705
Abenaki raid Oyster River, NH. One settler is captured.

November 4, 1977
At the request of Bill Seymour and Kent Ouimette, Chief Noel St-Aubin issued a Resolution from the Abenaki's of Becancour in support of ALL Abenaki people in the United States this was done to refute an alleged document inferring support of Homer St. Francis and his followers only.

November 6, 1676
Articles of Peace were drawn and subscribed at Boston which was ratified by Madockawando.

November 8, 1659
Wonalancet appealed to the Boston Court for permission to sell Wickasuake Island to satisfy the debt to John Tinker from another Indian of about L45 for which his brother Nanamocomuck was imprisoned for. Permission is granted to sell the Island to Ensign John Evered (Webb) and Nanamocomuck is released. 

Wickasuake Island was three miles above Pawtuckett Falls in the Merrimac River just above Lowell, it is 60 acres, half of which was cultivated at that time.

November 11, 1690
A letter is sent from Boston to Madockawando and other Sagmos at Penobscot regarding the agreement made with John Hawkins a.k.a. Kancamagus for the exchange of captives.

November 12, 2009
Chief Brian Chenevert and Sub-Chief Paul Bunnell attend a NH recognition meeting in Warner NH to discuss a bill being presented to the NH Legislature to grant recognition to the Abenaki and create a Commission of Indian Affairs.  Also in attendance are Bill and Sherry Gould, Peter Newell, Paul and Denise Pouliot and Liz Charlebois.

November 15, 1642
Passaquo and Saggahew, with the consent of Passaconaway, deeded the land at Pentucket, now know as Haverhill, MA to the English for three pounds, ten shillings.

November 18, 2006
The Koasek Traditional Band holds a social/powwow at the Haverhill Middle School in Haverhill, NH to raise money to purchase the Old Wells River School in Wells River (Newbury, VT) to turn into the Koasek Cultural Academy.

November 19, 1794
The Jay Treaty is signed which grants all Indians on both sides of the invisible border the ability to cross back and forth between the US and Canada freely.

November 25, 1976
Vermont Governor Thomas Salmon signed Executive Order # 36 which recognized the Abenaki as an "Indian Tribe" under the federal definition of a tribe. With this, was created a "Commission" to study the Abenaki problems and review the claims to hunting and fishing rights.

November 29, 1691
The Abenaki sign a peace treaty with the British. Benjamin Church has been skirmishing with then since September in the vicinity of Saco, in southern Maine. The Abenaki agree to a six month truce, to release their English prisoners, and to keep the British aware of the movements of the French in the area.

November 29, 1745
Lieutenant Paul Marin, leading 400 Frenchmen and 200 Abenakis and Micmacs, destroyed Saratoga, NY capturing 100 men.

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December 1883
Joseph Denny and his companion,  Elizabeth Polis, were Wabanaki basket makers traveling around western Maine in the 1870s and 1880s. Joseph was born about 1818, if his age is stated correctly at the time of his death. According to Elizabeth, Joe never married and lived with his mother at Old Town until she died. Around 1872, he took up with Elizabeth, as her hired man, to do her "basket stuff" for her. Joe and Elizabeth were staying at Richmond ME in December of 1883, when Joe was murdered and she was raped.

December 8, 1747
A party of Abenaki attack Bridgeman fort, the fort was burnt and several persons were killed and others taken prisoners.

December 10, 1695
A proclamation is made in Boston, MA stating any Indians found within five miles east or twenty miles west of the Connecticut River are to be treated as enemies.

December 15, 1725
The Peace and Friendship treaty signed by the "Eastern Tribes" in Nova Scotia. Signed by Pequaket and Arresguntacook Indians.


December 20, 1703
An Abenaki raiding party attack Saco ME. 3 Settlers are killed and captured.

December 24, 1703
An Abenaki raiding party attack Casco ME. 4 Settlers are killed and 2 are wounded.

December 24, 1814
Treaty of Ghent is signed which ends the war of 1812.

December 27, 2007 
Chief Ray P. Lussier “Lookingglass” of the Southern New England Council, once a member council of the Cowasuck of North America, passes over the river.

Contributing Timeline Individuals Were: Past Chief & former member Brian Chenevert,
 Elder Karen Mica, and Chief Paul Bunnell

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